IQ 1 6
  • Contract
  • Iraq
  • TBD USD / Year

  • Job applications may no longer being accepted for this opportunity.

Danish Refugee Council

Terms of Reference (ToR)
Research on Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Agribusinesses in Tel Afar and Sinjar, Ninewa Governorate

  1. Who is the Danish Refugee Council?
    Founded in 1956, the Danish Refugee Council (DRC) is a leading international NGO and one of the few with a specific expertise in forced displacement. Active in 40 countries with 9,000 employees and supported by 7,500 volunteers, DRC protects, advocates, and builds sustainable futures for refugees and other displacement affected people and communities. DRC works during displacement at all stages: In the acute crisis, in displacement, when settling and integrating in a new place, or upon return. DRC provides protection and life-saving humanitarian assistance; supports displaced persons in becoming self-reliant and included into hosting societies; and works with civil society and responsible authorities to promote protection of rights and peaceful coexistence.
    DRC has been operational in Iraq since 2003 serving the needs of populations impacted by displacement, including refugees, IDPs, returnees, and host community. Our programming encompasses multiple governorates in Federal Iraq and the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, and includes protection, economic recovery, shelter and settlements, WASH, and humanitarian disarmament and peacebuilding programming.
  2. Purpose of the consultancy
    The Danish Refugee Council based in Iraq seeks proposals from a consultant, a group of consultants or a consultancy firm to assess the impacts of climate change on agri-businesses in Tel Afar and Sinjar (Ninewa governorate), in terms of production and employment; and to identify practical climate smart agriculture practices to foster environmentally sound agriculture production and positive environmental impacts.
    The purpose of this consultancy is to:
    ▪ To identify the impacts of climate change including; on migration and displacement, on livelihoods trends (production and employment), on conflict dynamics and social cohesion, coping mechanisms, and identification of strategies which are currently being adopted by agri-businesses in Sinjar and Tel Afar to mitigate these impacts. The analysis should apply gender-sensitive and participatory methodology to identify gender dimensions of the impact of climate change on rural men and women in both locations.
    ▪ To identify practical actions that men and women-led agri-businesses could adopt, in terms of practices and technologies, which will consequently help to enhance and develop the training curriculum and financial support DRC can bring to these businesses.
    ▪ To develop key advocacy and awareness-raising messages for communities, targeted local and sub/national government structures, donors, and the humanitarian community active in climate response in the areas of intervention.
  3. Background
    Prior to the conflict, Ninewa was considered the “breadbasket of Iraq”, with local economies relying heavily on agriculture as one of the main sources of employment. Ninewa is now the governorate with highest number of returnee households living in areas with inoperative agricultural industries (48%). In Sinjar, all returnee households living in agricultural areas reside in locations where only some or no agricultural activities are taking place. This is further exacerbated by the worsening impacts of the climate crisis on economic activities; rising temperatures and growing water scarcity are curbing efforts to restart agricultural activities, increasingly exacerbating existing economic vulnerabilities. Between 2021 and 2022, Iraq has witnessed a significant reduction in the level of rainfall, fostering prolonged periods of drought across many governorates. In Ninewa, these instances caused a drastic reduction in the quantity of wheat and barley produced in 2021, at approximately 50% of the previous years’ average. This was further impacted by the increased occurrence of extreme weather events in 2022 – particularly sand and dust Storms. While common in Iraq, the rate and intensity of such events has increased significantly in recent years. Dust storms damage crops, cause soil loss, and remove organic matter and nutrient-rich particles, thereby reducing agricultural productivity. Lower agricultural output pushed prices of livestock farming to 200% compared to 2018-2019 due to shortage and soaring prices of feedstuffs, causing a high risk of destocking of animals, and leading to an increase in the price of food commodities for the whole population. Coupled with the damages to irrigation infrastructure across the governorate, agribusinesses and farmers sustained a significant drop in their revenues, aggravating an already dire situation. In Tel Afar, all IDPs and returnees reside in areas that have experienced reduced agricultural output due to environmental factors, which are similarly affecting 67% of IDPs and 78% of returnees in Sinjar. Gender plays a role with women and girls disproportionately affected by the adverse effects of climate change due to pre-existing gender norms and persisting inequalities. Women constitute half of the rural population of more than 12 million in Iraq, yet they remain invisible in national policies or advocacy efforts despite emerging evidence around additional negative impacts on this group. Women bear major responsibility for ensuring food security of the household.1 The loss of livelihoods, access to which is already highly constrained for women, as a result of climate change, creates additional pressures on women and may push them into adopting negative coping strategies such as reduction of daily food intake. Increase in forced marriage, early marriage or child labour loom as other protection risks linked to impacts of climate change. Climate change induced displacement is affecting women’s security, increasing risks of GBV as well as limiting access to reproductive health, especially for pregnant displaced women.2 These adverse impacts on women and girls must be acknowledged and incorporated into research, policy, and advocacy measures.
    In recognition of the increasing impact of climate change and water scarcity on livelihoods in Tel Afar and Sinjar, and recognizing its gendered impact, DRC is currently supporting vulnerable agri-businesses, including agri-business owned by women and/or relying on labour of rural women, to maintain and develop their production with business development support and financial support. In order to support further these agri-businesses to adapt to climate change and to be environmentally positive, DRC is contracting this research.
  4. Objective of the consultancy
    ▪ The consultant/s will be required to:
    • Conduct an assessment (assessment number 1) of the impacts of climate hazards (droughts, sandstorms, etc.) on agriculture production in terms of crops and livestock, and their consequences in terms of food security for the general population, on income generating opportunities for agri-business owners and employment opportunities, on migration and displacement, on conflict dynamics and social cohesion. As well as assessing the existing climate change coping mechanisms; the assessment must include analysis of gender impacts of climate change on rural women.
    • Conduct an assessment (assessment number 2) with agri-businesses to understand their challenges in terms of climate change, their current adaptations practices and their ideal adaptation strategies and recommendations. The assessment must include perspective of female farmers to understand any gender differences and specific barriers female farmers may experience in dealing with adverse impacts of climate change.
    ▪ Based on the above-mentioned assessments and based on agricultural engineering skills, technologies and existing practices, and other countries experiences, identify practical actions appropriate to the location, environment and market, that agri-businesses could adopt, in terms of practices and technologies, to adapt to climate change or to have positive impact on the environment. These recommendations should be inclusive of female farmers considering their skills, levels of knowledge, access to training and resources.
    ▪ Based on assessments and practices recommended, identify policy and technology changes required in the country, which will help DRC to build advocacy messages towards the government and donors, and develop positive messaging for populations and farmers in terms of environmental protection and good practice. Policy and advocacy recommendations should build also on gender analysis included in the assessments and refer to actions required to ensure higher visibility for the situation of rural women.
  5. Scope of work and Methodology
    The Consultant will be required to prepare a detailed methodology and work plan indicating how the objectives of the project will be achieved, and the support required from DRC.
    The research methodology will apply an inclusive approach with data and research findings disaggregated by different wealth and gender groups, as well as displacement status and location, to identify impacts of climate change on different population groups in agriculture and pathways for increasing their resilience.
    The research will include quantitative and qualitative surveys with various groups.
    The research methodology must be designed in a gender-inclusive and sensitive way which includes gender mixed enumerator teams, gender-segregated group discussions, female facilitators for women’s groups etc.
    This work will also include scientific research and analysis, based on secondary data review, scientific recommendations and analysis of the situation from an agriculture and environmental engineering perspectives. The research should include existing evidence of good practices around building resilience of female farmers to mitigate negative impacts of climate change on rural women.
  6. Deliverables

The Consultant/s will submit the following deliverables as mentioned below:
Phase Expected deliverables Indicative description tasks Maximum expected timeframe

  • Phase 1 Research Draft assessment reports (assessments number 1 and 2)
    • Research with local population and with local agri-businesses; draft reports (two different reports) need to be shared with DRC for feedback12 days .
  • Phase 2 Agriculture technical recommendations Practical recommendations for farmers
    • List/catalogue of practical actions that agri-businesses could adopt, in terms of practices and technologies, to adapt to climate change or to have positive impact on the environment.
    • Each action needs to be step-by-step, taking into consideration the context and challenges outlined in the assessment, including gender differences identified, be realistic with the capacities of the farmers and be adapted for them (also considering any difference between male and female farmers). Each action can also outline the external support that farmers should receive to achieve each step.13 days .
  • Phase 3 Policy and messaging Identification of policy changes and development of messaging for farmers and populations
    • Based on the assessments and agriculture technical recommendations, identify some policies at the national government or regional governmental levels that could change or be developed to support farmers to adapt to climate change or to have positive impacts. Recommendations must include perspectives of rural women and any specific recommendations for building their improved resilience in the Iraqi context. Develop user friendly messaging on taking care of the environment for the populations and the role of environmental sensitive agriculture practices for male and female farmers.

5 days Phase 4 Review and final reporting Presentation on key findings Final assessment reports
Based on the deliverables from phases 1-3, prepare a presentation providing an overview of the methodology, challenges, findings and recommendations from the
Phase Expected deliverables Indicative description tasks Maximum expected timeframe
project and deliver the presentation to DRC staff, followed by a brief question and answer session.
DRC to review the final assessment reports and recommendations from phases 2 and 3. 5 days.

The Consultant will provide the documentation by email, in the most appropriate format, in both word and PDF. The date and time of the presentation will be agreed at the start of the project.

  1. Duration, timeline, and payment
    The expected start date of the assignment is the 1st week of March 2023.
    The consultant is required to submit a comprehensive action plan, including a detailed outline of the phases of the deliverable, by April 15th, 2023. In order to maximize efficiency, the consultant is encouraged to explore the possibility of completing multiple phases concurrently
    Output documents will be reviewed for quality and final payments will be made upon submission of all agreed deliverables.
  2. Proposed Composition of Team
    • Research/Project Manager
    • Minimum of a bachelor’s degree in Agriculture Engineering, Agronomy, Environmental Studies or other relevant subject.
    • Gender expert highly desirable
  3. Eligibility, qualification, and experience required Eligibility: ➢ The consultant has the authorisation to work in Iraq Experience and Skills:
    ➢ A minimum of 5 years of experience in agriculture engineering and environment proven.
    ➢ Expertise and experience in conducting similar field research and engagement of local populations;
    ➢ Demonstrable experience in agriculture research, climate change and environment.
    ➢ Expertise in agriculture engineering, in particular in terms of adaptation to climate change (processes and technologies);
    ➢ Demonstrable experience in developing similar products assessing climate change impacts;
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    ➢ Experience and understanding of the issues faced by vulnerable populations and agribusinesses in Iraq;
    ➢ Experience of policy and advocacy related to climate change.
    ➢ Knowledge and experience in conducting gender analysis and developing policy and advocacy recommendations considering the situation of rural women
    Desirable: ➢ Experience of Iraq context, and specifically Ninewa governorate. ➢ Excellent computer skills and experience in editing, formatting, and polishing large documents. Qualifications: ➢ Minimum of a bachelor’s degree in Agriculture Engineering, Agronomy, Environmental Studies or other relevant subject. Language requirements: ➢ Written and spoken fluency in English and Arabic is essential. Or translator to be assigned in case the consultant misses one of the mentioned languages. ➢ Working knowledge of Kurdish (Kurmanji/Badini) and/or Turkmen is an advantage.
  4. Technical supervision
    The selected consultant will work under the supervision of the Economic Recovery Project Manager – Ninewa.
  5. Location and support
    The research will be conducted in Sinjar and Telafar Districts of Ninewa Governorate. The consultant must include both districts equally within each part of the assessment and should provide location specific findings and recommendations where appropriate. The consultant is expected to suggest sub-districts to be covered as part of the methodology.
    DRC is able to provide office space in Telafar Markaz and has community centres in Ayadiyah sub-district (Telafar) and Sinjar which may be used by the consultant for any assessment activities – available on request.
    The consultant will provide her/his own computer and mobile telephone.
    The consultant is responsible for their travel, required documentation and access to research locations under this assignment.
  6. Travel
    The consultant will travel and reach to the research locations by their own means. DRC is able to provide a support letter for the assignment. The consultant is responsible for obtaining the relevant permissions and documentation to travel within Iraq.

How to apply

Interested Consultant/s in order to get full RFP package please visit.

Email submission
Bids can be submitted by email to the following dedicated, controlled, & secure email address:
[email protected]
When Bids are emailed, the following conditions shall be complied with:

  • The RFP number shall be inserted in the Subject Heading of the email
  • Separate emails shall be used for the ‘Financial Bid’ and ‘Technical Bid’, and the Subject Heading of the email shall indicate which type the email contains
    • The financial bid shall only contain the financial bid,
    • The technical bid shall contain all other documents required by the tender, but excluding all pricing information
  • Bid documents required, shall be included as an attachment to the email in PDF, JPEG, TIF format, or the same type of files provided as a ZIP file. Documents in MS Word or excel formats, will result in the bid being disqualified.
  • Email attachments shall not exceed 4MB; otherwise, the bidder shall send his bid in multiple emails.

Closing date: 21 Feb 2023